Sexual exploitation
The forcible or deceptive recruitment of women, men and children for the purposes of forced prostitution or sexual exploitation.
Forced labour
Forced labour is any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form of punishment. Immigrants are particularly vulnerable, but individuals also may be forced into labour in their own countries. Female victims of forced or bonded labour, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually exploited as well.
Domestic servitude
Employment in private homes where victims are ill-treated, humiliated and subjected to exhausting working hours and other exploitation. Workplaces are informal, connected to a victim’s off-duty living quarters, and not often shared with other workers. Such an environment, which often socially isolates workers, is conducive to non-consensual exploitation since authorities cannot inspect private property as easily as they can inspect formal workplaces.
Trafficking versus smuggling
A number of factors help distinguish between smuggling and trafficking:
  • Smuggling is characterised by illegal entry only and international movement only, either secretly or by deception (whether for profit or otherwise);
  • Smuggling is a voluntary act and there is no further exploitation by the smugglers once they reach their destination;
  • There is normally little coercion/violence involved or required from those assisting in the smuggling.

Trafficking involves the transportation of persons in the UK in order to exploit them by the use of force, violence, deception, intimidation or coercion. The form of exploitation includes commercial sexual and bonded labour exploitation. The persons who are trafficked have little choice in what happens to them and usually suffer abuse due to the threats and use of violence against them and/or their family.
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